On this page you can find short summaries of each of the chapters in the Policy Handbook. The texts should serve as general indications of what can be found in the full chapters, which in turn can be downloaded by clicking on the links underneath each summary. Alternatively, the full document can be downloaded at any time from the Download box on the right-hand side of the screen.
Foreword by former Dutch Prime Minister
Using clean(er) fuels and clean(er) vehicles is important to achieve CO2 reduction targets and other environmental goals, both globally and in Europe. However, new technologies and innovative products do not enter the market that easily. Especially products that serve important public and environmental goals - but cost more - need to be well supported in the introduction phase. This applies for both fuels and vehicles.
This new handbook, designed to support local initiatives to "clean up" transport, is therefore a necessary and useful instrument. The main added value of this handbook is that it is based on the lessons learned from real projects which have successfully been completed in European Cities.
Download Foreword [PDF 61 KB]
Introduction to the Biofuel Cities Project
Biofuel Cities is a European project - supported by the European Commission - that provides a platform for biofuel stakeholders. In particular, Biofuel Cities will integrate European research and pilot application of biofuels in European local governments. The project aims to accelerate the market introduction of biofuels and energy-efficient vehicles, based on local sustainable mobility policies.
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Think Globally, act Locally, but how does one go about this exactly? Local authorities are uniquely well placed to take the lead in converting words and rhetoric into actions that bring change where it is needed - in towns and cities all over Europe. The three cases in this study illustrate what can be achieved if a local authority decides to take action. They are Stockholm, Graz and Lille. They all started their action some 15 years ago, but they are still to a certain extent dependent on fossil fuels, despite having made huge progress towards independence. This gives a measure of the time-scales that are involved and emphasises the urgency with which this issue needs to be treated today. The good news is that much of the pioneering work has been done. Today progress can be made at much greater speed - if, but only if, a local authority decides to be pro-active in introducing change.
Download Executive Summary [PDF 77 KB]
Selected Key Success Factors
In the implementation of clean(er) fuel and vehicle policies in cities, three key factors were identified as most essential to the success of a local initiative - the creation of local demand; the provision of market security and the creation of good market conditions.
The realisation of this third factor - the creation of good market conditions - demands a number of further conditions. Among these are clear leadership; the setting of clear and ambitious targets early on; demonstration of long-term local government commitment; the setting up of a dialogue between the local government and key stakeholders; constant and intense lobbying (locally, regionally and nationally); development of a sophisticated Public Relations strategy, a composite 'clean vehicle' definition and taking part in joint procurement with neighbouring municipalities.
Download Selected Key Success Factors [PDF 48 KB]
Why is local implementation so important?
National, European and international politicians, journalists and environmental advocates call upon everyone to Think Globally and Act Locally. With raising concerns about climate change, the political need for security of supply and the public demand for clean(er) cities, local governments are increasingly called upon to take action. Local development and implementation of clean(er) fuel policies can be most effective and play a major role in national policy implementation. This is mainly attributed to the fact that local governments are closer to the market and to main stakeholders. However, this also implies that local governments are confronted with the many existing challenges in the implementation of clean(er) fuel policies in the local market. These challenges may constitute a risk, unless workable solutions are implemented at the right time and place.
This handbook aims to guide the local / regional governments all over Europe who are involved in implementing clean(er) fuel policies in transport. The general challenge these governments are facing is how local policies on clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be made operational. Hence, how can the step be made from a vision on the strategic policy level, to a vision on the implementation of these policies.
Good Practice Examples
The description of the three good practice examples of local clean(er) fuels policy implementation in Europe show that local governments have a clear and proven opportunity to implement the large scale use of clean(er) fuels and vehicles at the local level.
The three cities of Stockholm, Graz and Lille are European pioneers in the development and implementation of local clean(er) fuels policies. Each of these cities followed different paths but they were all successful in achieving their local clean(er) fuel policy objectives and solving the so-called "chicken-and-egg" dilemma.
Key to the success of solving this dilemma was the creation of a local market for clean(er) fuels and vehicles. In the process of establishing this market the local governments realised that they formed a crucial market factor themselves and acted accordingly. All three local markets provide incentives to enterprises to invest and take an active role in the introduction of clean(er) fuels and clean(er) vehicles. What the main elements of these local markets are described and discussed in chapter 3.
Achieving such a local market for clean(er) fuels and vehicles is a difficult and long process between the local government and the stakeholders involved. All three cities took a different approach. Although the approach was different, the main elements were basically the same and will be discussed at length in the next chapter. In this sub section only a brief summary of the three cases is given, thereby focusing on the most interesting elements observed.
Download The Stockholm Case [PDF 150 KB]
Download The Graz Case [PDF 314 KB]
Download The Lille Case [PDF 365 KB]
Vital Market Elements
As we learned from chapter 2, the major challenge for the implementation of a clean(er) fuels and vehicles policy is the chicken-and-egg dilemma. Chapter 3 shows how this dilemma can be overcome by creating a good local market for clean(er) fuels, clean(er) vehicles and the necessary infrastructure at roughly the same moment in time. This requires a long and complex process between local governments and key target-groups, which consists of establishing political and societal support, involving key target groups and developing a framework of policy measures. Special attention should be given to the option of close cooperation with neighbouring local governments, and the special attention required to encourage an active role of enterprises in the implementation of clean(er) fuel policies.
In the end, the desired output consists of the creation of a local demand for clean(er) fuels and vehicles, the provision of market security to attract long-term investments; and the creation of good market conditions for prolonged competitiveness of clean(er) fuels and vehicles.
Download Vital Market Elements [PDF 141 KB]
The purpose of the policy measures discussed in this handbook is to overcome barriers in the implementation of clean(er) fuel and vehicles policies at the local level. In fact these policy measures are formulated in such a way that barriers are subsequently redefined as challenges, and that the policy measures are the solutions to overcome these challenges. In addition the development of the policy measures plays an important role in building political consensus and in involving enterprises in the implementation process.
Aside from the individual functionality of each policy measure, it is important that all the policy measures together form a framework that serves the whole market for clean(er) fuels and vehicles.
In developing the framework of policy measures a 'win-win' situation should be created in which the vital market elements are achieved in a manner that is affordable, and serves both the public interest and the needs of private enterprises.
Download Policy Measures [PDF 145 KB]
All Key Success Factors
The case descriptions and the analysis show that Stockholm, Graz, and Lille differ in some respects of their local implementation of clean(er) fuel policies. However, they share many similarities as well. Most of the key success factors listed in this chapter are shared (in different degrees of intensity) by the three cities. In the preparation phase of local implementation of clean(er) fuel policies, some of the key success factors identified were clear leadership, early participation in European projects aimed at promoting clean(er) fuels and realising that the local government is a crucial market factor and acting accordingly.
In establishing political and societal support, the key success factors included setting up a dialogue between the local government and local stakeholders (including key enterprises and end-users); raising public awareness; creating a 'win-win' situation between the private and public sector and constant lobbying at the local, regional and national level. In involving enterprises and end-users important steps were making sure to engage them in the implementation process from the start and to develop policy measures in close cooperation with them; identifying the different interests of commercial target-groups and aiming at creating a good local market for clean(er) fuels and vehicles. Finally, in developing policy measures it was considered important to create good market conditions by developing a well-integrated policy measures framework and to involve adjacent municipalities and convince them to join.
Download All Key Success Factors [PDF 57 KB]
Download Abbreviations [PDF 59 KB]